Benedict, C., Hallschmid, M., Scheibner, J., Niemeyer, D., Schultes, B., Merl, V., Fehm, H. L., et al. (2005). Gut protein uptake and mechanisms of meal-induced cortisol release. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 90(3), 1692–1696. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-1792
“In summary, our experiments indicate that the cortisol response to protein-containing meals originates from an amino acid-dependent activation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. How this signal is reported to the HPA system to stimulate cortisol release is not yet clear. Afferent neurons of the vagus nerve, which is known to enable gut-brain communication, may serve this function. The vagus nerve could also be the target of neuropharmacological agents like cholinergic and adrenergic agonists that have been shown to reinforce the meal-related increase in cortisol release (3, 31). Also, vagal stimulation effectively stimulates HPA secretory activity (32). Alternatively, the intake of proteins and the accumulation of amino acids in the gut might stimulate the release of enteric hormones like cholecystokinin and gastrin-releasing peptide that, in turn, stimulate HPA secretory activity (33, 34).”
Isn’t endocrinology just the shiz?
Campfield, L. A., & Smith, F. J. (2003). Blood glucose dynamics and control of meal initiation: a pattern detection and recognition theory. Physiological Reviews, 83(1), 25–58. doi:10.1152/physrev.00019.2002
Abstract outlining things that need to be studied in relation to this topic. No conclusions.
Clow, A., et al., The cortisol awakening response: More than a measure of HPA axis function. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (2010), doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.12.011
Cortisol levels in relation to pre/post waking periods. Does not discuss effect on different dietary approaches.
Dallman MF, Akana SF, Strack AM, Hanson ES, Sebastian RJ. The neural network that regulates energy balance is responsive to gluco- corticoids and insulin and also regulates HPA axis responsivity at a site proximal to CRF neurons. Stress: Basic Mechanisms Clin Implicat 1995; 771: 730±742.
Discussing relationship between insulin and corticosteroids and how changes in levels dictate how energy is being stored either muscle store or abdominal fat stores. Abdominal storage most likely linked to increased activity in the HPA axis. All in rats – more study required to determine effects in humans.
Fries, E., Dettenborn, L., Kirschbaum, C., 2009. The cortisol awakening response (CAR): facts and future directions. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 72, 67–73.
More in relation to the CAR and the HPA axis. All very promising research but hardly grounds for any conclusive ultilisation regarding diet at this stage.
Gibson, E. L., Checkley, S., Papadopoulos, A., Poon, L., Daley, S., & Wardle, J. (1999). Increased salivary cortisol reliably induced by a protein-rich midday meal. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61(2), 214–224.
Cortisol levels increase after meal with increased amount of protein. Which is nice.
MAYER, J. (1953). Glucostatic mechanism of regulation of food intake. The New England journal of medicine, 249(1), 13–16. doi:10.1056/NEJM195307022490104
Couldn’t find abstract. Fricken old, that’s why.
Newport, D.J. and Nemeroff, C.B. (2002) Stress. In: (Ed. in chief), Encyclopedia of the Human Brain, Vol. 4. Elsevier, pp. 449-462.
Not sure what this is, couldn’t find it.
Shin, I.-Y., Ahn, R.-S., Chun, S.-I., Lee, Y.-J., Kim, M.-S., Lee, C.-K., & Sung, S. (2011). Cortisol Awakening Response and Nighttime Salivary Cortisol Levels in Healthy Working Korean Subjects. Yonsei Medical Journal, 52(3), 435. doi:10.3349/ymj.2011.52.3.435
Gathered data for CAR for the benefit of further HPA research.
Slag, M. F., Ahmad, M., Gannon, M. C., & Nuttall, F. Q. (1981). Meal stimulation of cortisol secretion: a protein induced effect. Metabolism, 30(11), 1104–1108.
Quote; “We conclude that dietary protein plays an important role in meal stimulated cortisol release.”
High protein diet increases cortisol. Awesome.
Therrien, F., Drapeau, V., Lupien, S. J., Beaulieu, S., Doré, J., Tremblay, A., & Richard, D. (2008). Awakening cortisol response in relation to psychosocial profiles and eating behaviors. Physiology & Behavior, 93(1-2), 282–288. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.08.019
Quote: “This study highlights a gender-dependent relationship between ACR, hence the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and eating behaviors and psychological profiles.”
Also for the women: “The latter was also negatively associated with the satiety quotient for fullness in response to the standardized breakfast (r=-0.48, p=0.010)”.
Vila, G., Krebs, M., Riedl, M., Baumgartner-Parzer, S. M., Clodi, M., Maier, C., Pacini, G., et al. (2010). Acute effects of hydrocortisone on the metabolic response to a glucose load: increase in the first-phase insulin secretion. European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies, 163(2), 225–231. doi:10.1530/EJE-10-0282
Quote: “One i.v. bolus of hydrocortisone induces rapid effects on carbohydrate metabolism increasing the first-phase beta-cell function. The modulation of P(eptide) YY plasma levels suggests the possible non-genomic effects of glucocorticoids on appetite-regulatory hormones.”
Great research there so far.
"Physiology is all just propaganda and lies... all waiting to be disproven by the next study."
"I'm not a real doctor; But I am a real worm; I am an actual worm." - TMBG