You seem to not be aware that protein is insulinogenic, and ketosis burns ketones, not necessarily fat cells. Also, adrenal responses are different. So no, those two are not fasted rides. BCAA do not undergo the same gluconeogenic conversion process.
And everyone on Sky is in the top .5% of cyclists in the world and are already incredibly fit and lean. Most civilians lack the dietary awareness, good habits, and general physical capacity.
But again, correlation does not equal causation and it's not as widely used as it was in 2012-2013. In fact, very rarely used anymore from the few remaining contacts I've spoken to.
1. My background is in the medical field. I can take a picture of my graduate degree and post it if it makes you feel better. I don't know everything about sports medicine/physiology, but I'm not some schmuck on a forum.
2. We (humanity) don't have this all figured out regarding how the body works. I know I sure don't. Even pro-team docs and sports physiologists don't have it figured out. The more I learn about our body, the more I realize we don't know much.
3. Protein might be insulinogenic, but please don't act like it is insulinogenic like carbs are. Because it isn't. And when you look at the research that has been published, it is actually only certain amino acids (amino acids = building blocks of protein). The following article that was published showed that only:
"L-arginine, L-lysine, L-alanine, L-proline, L-leucine and L-glutamine acutely stimulate insulin secretion from mouse islets and INS-1E cells in a dose- and glucose-dependent manner, whereas DL-homocysteine inhibits insulin release."
Source: Dose- and Glucose-Dependent Effects of Amino Acids on Insulin Secretion from Isolated Mouse Islets and Clonal INS-1E Beta-Cellshttp://www.soc-bdr.org/rds/archive/5/4_ ... ex_en.html
So a lot of this insulin secretion (even with proteins) is in a dose and glucose dependent relationship. There are also amino acids (proteins) that inhibit insulin secretion.
Here is another published research article:
the effects of amino acids are specific, in that basal rates of protein synthesis are unaffected, only certain amino acids influence insulin action, and amino acids fail to alter insulin binding or the insulin-responsive glucose transport system.
Source: Amino acid regulation of insulin action in isolated adipocytes. Selective ability of amino acids to enhance both insulin sensitivity and maximal insulin responsiveness of the protein synthesis system.http://www.jbc.org/content/264/4/2037.short
4. "ketosis burns ketones, not necessarily fat cells." Ketone bodies are produced from the breakdown of fatty acids in the mitochondria of the liver. Fatty acids are from the breakdown of lipids. You can't get ketone bodies without the breakdown of fatty acids.
The whole biochemical process of getting to ketone bodies use is through periods of lack of caloric intake, carb restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise (you deplete glucose/glycogen stores) and in untreated diabetes type I. When carb intake is restricted, it lowers the blood sugar level, thereby also lowering the insulin level. As the insulin levels drops and when energy is needed and there is no glucose or glycogen on store, the fatty acids from fat cells enter the bloodstream and are metabolized in the biochemical process of beta-oxidation. Here is the biochemical chart of it:
It is that product, acetyl-coA that is then used in the Krebs Cycle aka citric acid cycle.
5. "Most civilians" Well this is WW and more specifically the training sub-forum of WW. We aren't most civilians and the fact that we bike, care about our fitness and dietary intake means we are in a very small subgroup. While we might not have the natural talent or genetic gifts that some ProTour riders have, we are still in that small subset of the general population that they are.
6. Listen to Dr. James Morton of Team Sky, in the video I posted. Team Sky still does fasted training rides. I have a friend that has worked for them and told me this much. I know other ProTour teams do as well. Read some of Dr. Morton's published work from his research he has done in his position at Liverpool John Moores University. This type of training is still actively used in pro cycling. https://youtu.be/jFxb2wpvgxk