So you're saying that when you're in the large ring and the hardest cogs (11, 12, etc), the chain rubs the front derailleur, but only when riding outside...
How fast are you going when in those gears? what is your cadence? Even perfectly set up, at lower cadence under high torque, you will likely be able to make the chain rub the front derailleur.
Assuming that is not the issue, and assuming you cannot simply increase cable tension and unscrew the high limit slightly, a couple things come to mind.
First is to make sure the fd is at the right height. The outer cage plate should be between 1-3mm above the outer ring teeth. I personally aim for 1.5mm. Then make sure the derailleur cage angle is truly parallel to the large ring. Shimano shows a good method for this: chain off, place a 5mm Allen wrench along the right side of the large chainring's teeth. The wrench should only sit on the outermost part of the ring. Adjust the LOW limit screw until the right side of the fd outer cage just barely grazes the wrench. Turn the crank fore n aft to check that this measured clearance is uniform from the front of the fd cage to the rear.
Lastly, there are two correct ways to route the cable around the pinch bolt and a number of incorrect ways. If yours is correct, the cable passes UNDER the bolt itself. Almost all other derailleurs require the opposite. With respect to the two correct options, one choice allows the derailleur to move farther for a given cable pull. If yours is not this way, and Shimano's guide tool is vague about which choice is for you, it is possible that the mechanics had "no choice" but to set the high limit screw a bit tight. Their other option would have been for them to allow a lot more rubbing in your small ring/easiest cog. Switching cable anchor points would eliminate this compromise.
I don't know why any Shimano tech would recommend to ditch the barrel adjuster. I cannot believe an actual Shimano tech guy would do that, most I've met are pretty sharp. A Shimano SALES rep, sure.
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