Have grown up in Norway part of my life, I will say that it the type of terrain varies depending on what you want.
'Sørlandet' which is the very southern part of Norway (Mandal, Kristiansand, Grimstad (where Thor Hushovd is from), reminds me of New England area, specifically Maine.
'Østlandet' (Oslo, Drammen, Fredrikstad, Moss, Porsgrunn) has territory that ranges from rolling 'hills' like the Appalachia region all the way to Rocky Mountain type mountains when you head west to the 'Oppland' county. Very very beautiful scenery and roads there.
Then there is the 'Vestlandet' region (Bergen, Stavanger, Molde, Ålesund) that has the Atlanterhavsveien i.e. Atlantic Road that was shown in the Cycling Tips article. Very beautiful region and that road is magnificent. This is the region with all the fjords and many of the glaciers. Also has a lot of outer lying islands off the coast. I don't think there is one flat spot in this part of the country. Seriously. My Dad use to joke the flattest part of Norway was the postcard you might send home. Especially true of this region. The weather here is very harsh. Cold. Windy. Rainy. Reminds me of Seattle a little, except this region is right off the Atlantic coast.
That was just a brief overview of 'Sør-Norge' part of Norway from my experience. That doesn't even include northern Norway which is even more remote and 'majestic' imo.
So for comparison to Canada I would say it is hard as Norway (and Canada have such varied terrain). Maybe for Sørlandet I would say New Brunswick/Nova Scotia are similar terrain wise.
Østlandet I might compare to eastern BC and would compare Vestlandet to western BC. That is just from the top of my head as I haven't spent that much time in Canada.
Newfoundland and Labrador are places I want to visit, but not for biking (backpacking instead). I think those are places you might not want to visit during the winter time. Norway, while it gets cold and gets snow, gets fairly moderate winters for being as far north as it is. This is due to the Gulf Stream that goes right past their coast. Without this, Norway would be one large ice cube.