The practical benefits that we already realized with this first generation process are lower manufacturing cost, higher manufacturing speed, effectively zero waste compared to any process using prepreg fabric (excludes towpreg), and less variation from rim to rim. Theoretical advantages are as already mentioned, but the theory is also exciting since filament winding happens to be the best way to utilize fiber reinforcement as the fibers are laid up under constant tension (ie. they are straight and mostly immobilized in the straight orientation) and they are not crimped which is what happens with weaving (cloth) or braiding (RTM process)....and yes, winding is not weaving or braiding.
You can see some stiffness batch variance data here (image misplaced at the moment under the CTL heading): http://www.venn-cycling.com/?_ptc=1#technology
The comparison base is not a random Chinese rim, but rims made using the manual layup process for a highly respected major brand.
As for the alloy rim braking surface, it is possible but it will depend on demand.
The technology will definitively be cracked by other manufacturers over time. The basic sentiment from our friends in the composite rim manufacturing field was "retire, or figure it out". The only area where the filament wound rims will not dominate in the future is with the more unique shaped rims such as those with spoke anchor cutouts on sidewalls, or some of the new MTB rims with decorative external surfaces (ridges and the like). For filament winding to work the filament has to be under constant tension, so it is not possible to wind troughs or bumps.